Archives for the month of: August, 2013

Title: Module on CONSTRUCTIVISM

Aim: i) Encourage knowledge formation
ii) Encourage metacognitive processes for judging, organizing, and acquiring information
Participants will:
• understand the historical roots of constructivism
• describe constructivist views of learning and review its history
• Differentiate and analyze different types of student learning using the constructivist approach.
• Apply constructivist methods to content areas.
• Evaluate the use of cooperative learning in the classroom.
• Explore possibilities regarding the teaching of problem solving and thinking skills
• Examine critical thinking skills and their application to the classroom.
Introduction: Traditionally learners have been dominated by teachers in the learning process. The learner had to go and learn by the method the teacher teaches. Learner had no freedom to think and do on his own. Whereas individuals are active agents in constructing their own knowledge. This ability is mainly reflected during the course of interaction with the environment. Thinking is an active process whereby children organize their perceptions of the world. To extract this ability, the children need to be allowed to do and learn on their own.
Constructivism is a learning theory
I. Which Emphasizes problem solving and understanding
II. Uses authentic tasks, experiences, settings, assessments
III. Presents the contents holistically –not in separate smaller parts

Training Strategies: 1. Whole class
2. Small groups
3. Individual

Training Settings Hall for seating 40- 45 teachers

Unit-1 Historical and Theoretical roots of Constructivism

Time: 20 min
Training Objectives: To link Constructivism with existing theories of learning. That Constructivism is not any isolated concept shall be understood.

Training Material Required: Document on Constructivism

Sequence of Activities:
i) Discussion on the topic using lecture method with Power point presentation
ii) Interaction with participants

Discussion:
i) Work of Piaget
ii) Social learning
iii) Zone of Proximal development
iv) Cognitive apprenticeship
v) Mediated learning

The constructivist revolution has deep roots in the history of education. It draws heavily on the work of Piaget and Vygotsky , both of whom emphasized that cognitive change takes place only when previous conceptions go through a process of dis-equilibration in light of new information.
Piaget and Vygotsky also emphasized the social nature of learning, and both suggested the use of mixed-ability learning groups to promote conceptual change.

SOCIAL LEARNING Modern constructivist thought draws most heavily on Vygotsky’s theories which have been used to support classroom instructional methods that emphasize cooperative learning, project-based learning, and discovery.

Firstly, children learn through joint interactions with adults and more capable peers (Social learning). On cooperative projects, children are exposed to their peers’ thinking processes; this method not only makes the learning outcome available to all students, but also makes other students’ thinking processes available to all. Vygotsky noted that successful problem solvers talk themselves through difficult problems. In cooperative groups, children can hear this inner speech out loud and can learn how successful problem solvers are thinking through their approaches.

ZONE OF PROXIMAL DEVELOPMENT A second key concept is the idea that children learn best the concepts that are in their zone of proximal development. Children are working within their zone of proximal development when they are engaged in tasks that they could not do alone but can do with the assistance of peers or adults. For example, if a child could not find the median of a set of numbers by himself but could do so with some assistance from his teacher, then finding medians is probably in his zone of proximal development. When children are working together, each child is likely to have a peer performing on a given task at a slightly higher cognitive level, exactly within the child’s zone of proximal development.

COGNITIVE APPRENTICESHIP This term refers to the process by which a learner gradually acquires expertise through interaction with an expert, either an adult or an older or more advanced peer. In many occupations, new workers learn their jobs through a process of apprenticeship, in which a new worker works closely with an expert, who provides a model, gives feedback to the less experienced worker, and gradually socializes the new worker into the norms and behaviors of the profession. Student teaching is a form of apprenticeship. Constructivist theorists suggest that teachers transfer this long-standing and highly effective model of teaching and learning to day-to-day activities in classrooms, both by engaging students in complex tasks and helping them through these tasks and by engaging students in heterogeneous, cooperative learning groups in which more advanced students help less advanced ones through complex tasks.

MEDIATED LEARNING Finally, Vygotsky’s emphasis on scaffolding, or mediated learning is important in modern constructivist thought. Current interpretations of Vygotsky’s ideas emphasize the idea that students should be given complex, difficult, realistic tasks and then be given enough help to achieve these tasks (rather than being taught little bits of knowledge that are expected someday to build up to complex tasks). This principle is used to support the classroom use of projects, simulations, explorations in the community, writing for real audiences, and other authentic tasks.

Cooperative Learning
It is thought that students will more easily discover and comprehend difficult concepts if they can talk with each other about the problems. Again, the emphasis on the social nature of learning and the use of groups of peers to model appropriate ways of thinking and expose and challenge each other’s misconceptions are key elements of Piaget’s and Vygotsky’s conceptions of cognitive change .

Discovery Learning
Discovery learning is an important component of modern constructivist approaches that has a long history in education innovation. In discovery learning, students are encouraged to learn largely on their own through active involvement with concepts and principles, and teachers encourage students to have experiences and conduct experiments that permit them to discover principles for themselves. Bruner (1966), an advocate of discovery learning, put it this way: “We teach a subject not to produce little living libraries on that subject, but rather to get a student to think . . . for himself, to consider matters as an historian does, to take part in the process of knowledge-getting. Knowing is a process, not a product”

Self-Regulated Learning
A key concept of constructivist theories of learning is a vision of the ideal student as a self-regulated learner. Self regulated learners are ones who have knowledge of effective learning strategies and how and when to use them. For example, they know how to break complex problems into simpler steps or to test out alternative solutions; they know how and when to skim and how and when to read for deep understanding; and they know how to write to persuade and how to write to inform. Further, self-regulated learners are motivated by learning itself, not only by grades or others’ approval and they are able to stick to a long-term task until it is done. When students have both effective learning strategies and the motivation and persistence to apply these strategies until a job is done to their satisfaction, and then they are likely to be effective learners and to have a lifelong motivation to learn.

Create Job Aids / Hand Outs:
Printed copy of abstract of the discussion is provided which shall be incorporated into the manual later. PPT presentation shall be compiled in a CD.

Unit-2 Theories of Learning

Time: 20 min
Training Objectives:
To make aware of the different theories related to learning processes. It shall be the basis of understanding the relation between the known theories and hence help to develop the concept of constructivism.

Training Material Required:
Document on constructivism

Sequence of Activities:
i) Discussion on the topic using lecture method with Power point presentation
ii) Interaction with participants

Discussion:
There are many different theories of how people learn. What follows is a variety of them, and it is useful to consider their application to how your students learn and also how you teach in educational programs. It is interesting to think about your own particular way of learning and to recognise that everyone does not learn the way you do.
Burns (1995,) ‘conceives of learning as a relatively permanent change in behaviour with behaviour including both observable activity and internal processes such as thinking, attitudes and emotions.’
Some of the known theories are discussed below:
A) Sensory Stimulation Theory
Traditional sensory stimulation theory has as its basic premise that effective learning occurs when the senses are stimulated (Laird, 1985). Laird quotes research that found that the vast majority of knowledge held by adults (75%) is learned through seeing. Hearing is the next most effective (about 13%) and the other senses – touch, smell and taste account for 12% of what we know. By stimulating the senses, especially the visual sense, learning can be enhanced. However, this theory says that if multi-senses are stimulated, greater learning takes place. Stimulation through the senses is achieved through a greater variety of colours, volume levels, strong statements, facts presented visually, use of a variety of techniques and media.
B) Reinforcement theory
This theory was developed by the behaviourist school of psychology, notably by B.F. Skinner earlier this century (Laird 1985, Burns 1995). Skinner believed that behaviour is a function of its consequences. The learner will repeat the desired behaviour if positive reinforcement (a pleasant consequence) follows the behaviour.
Positive reinforcement, or ‘rewards’ can include verbal reinforcement such as ‘That’s great’ or ‘You’re certainly on the right track’ through to more tangible rewards such as a certificate at the end of the course or promotion to a higher level in an organisation.
Negative reinforcement also strengthens a behaviour and refers to a situation when a negative condition is stopped or avoided as a consequence of the bahaviour. Punishment, on the other hand, weakens a behaviour because a negative condition is introduced or experienced as a consequence of the behaviour and teaches the individual not to repeat the behaviour which was negatively reinforced. A set of conditions is created which are designed to eliminate behaviour (Burns, 1995, p.108). Laird considers this aspect of behaviourism has little or no relevance to education. However, Burns says that punishment is widely used in everyday life although it only works for a short time and often only when the punishing agency is present.
Burns notes that much Competency Based Training is based on this theory, and although it is useful in learning repetitive tasks like multiplication tables and those work skills that require a great deal of practice, higher order learning is not involved. There is criticism of this approach that it is rigid and mechanical.

C) Cognitive-Gestalt approaches
The emphasis here is on the importance of experience, meaning, problem-solving and the development of insights (Burns 1995,). Burns notes that this theory has developed the concept that individuals have different needs and concerns at different times, and that they have subjective interpretations in different contexts.

D) Holistic learning theory
The basic premise of this theory is that the ‘individual personality consists of many elements … specifically … the intellect, emotions, the body impulse (or desire), intuition and imagination (Laird, 1985,) that all require activation if learning is to be more effective.

E) Facilitation theory (the humanist approach)
Carl Rogers and others have developed the theory of facilitative learning. The basic premise of this theory is that learning will occur by the educator acting as a facilitator, that is by establishing an atmosphere in which learners feel comfortable to consider new ideas and are not threatened by external factors (Laird 1985.)
Other characteristics of this theory include:
• – a belief that human beings have a natural eagerness to learn,
• – there is some resistance to, and unpleasant consequences of, giving up what is currently held to be true,
• – The most significant learning involves changing one’s concept of oneself.
Facilitative teachers are:
 – less protective of their constructs and beliefs than other teachers,
 – more able to listen to learners, especially to their feelings,
 – inclined to pay as much attention to their relationship with learners as to the content of the course,
 – Apt to accept feedback, both positive and negative and to use it as constructive insight into themselves and their behaviour.
Learners:
 – are encouraged to take responsibility for their own learning,
 – provide much of the input for the learning which occurs through their insights and experiences,
 – are encouraged to consider that the most valuable evaluation is self-evaluation and that learning needs to focus on factors that contribute to solving significant problems or achieving significant results.
F) Experiential learning
Kolb proposed a four-stage learning process with a model that is often referred to in describing experiential learning. The process can begin at any of the stages and is continuous, i.e. there is no limit to the number of cycles you can make in a learning situation. This theory asserts that without reflection we would simply continue to repeat our mistakes. The experiential learning cycle:

Kolb’s research found that people learn in four ways with the likelihood of developing one mode of learning more than another. As shown in the ‘experiential learning cycle’ model above, learning is:
 # through concrete experience
 # through observation and reflection
 # through abstract conceptualisation
 # through active experimentation

Differences in learning styles
The idea that people learn in different ways has been explored over the last few decades by educational researchers. Four learning styles are generally identified as:
 Activist (enjoys the experience itself),
 Reflector (spends a great deal of time and effort reflecting)
 Theorist (good at making connections and abstracting ideas from experience)
 Pragmatist (enjoys the planning stage)

G) Action Learning
Action Learning is the approach that links the world of learning with the world of action through a reflective process within small cooperative learning groups known as ‘action learning sets’ (McGill & Beaty 1995). The ‘sets’ meet regularly to work on individual members’ real-life issues with the aim of learning with and from each other. The ‘father’ of Action Learning, Reg Revans, has said that there can be no learning without action and no action without learning.

H) Adult Learning (Andragogy)
Malcolm Knowles (1978, 1990) is the theorist who brought the concept of adult learning to the fore. He has argued that adulthood has arrived when people behave in adult ways and believe themselves to be adults. Then they should be treated as adults. He taught that adult learning was special in a number of ways. For example:
 Adult learners bring a great deal of experience to the learning environment. Educators can use this as a resource.
 Adults expect to have a high degree of influence on what they are to be educated for, and how they are to be educated.
 The active participation of learners should be encouraged in designing and implementing educational programs.
 Adults need to be able to see applications for new learning.
 Adult learners expect to have a high degree of influence on how learning will be evaluated.
 Adults expect their responses to be acted upon when asked for feedback on the progress of the program.
Here is a quote from Burns (1995)
By adulthood people are self-directing. This is the concept that lies at the heart of andragogy … andragogy is therefore student-centred, experience-based, problem-oriented and collaborative very much in the spirit of the humanist approach to learning and education … the whole educational activity turns on the student.

1. Behaviourism and education
Behaviourism focuses on one particular view of learning: a change in external behaviour achieved through a large amount of repetition of desired actions, the reward of good habits and the discouragement of bad habits. In the classroom this view of learning led to a great deal of repetitive actions, praise for correct outcomes and immediate correction of mistakes. In the field of language learning this type of teaching was called the audio-lingual method, characterised by the whole class using choral chanting of key phrases, dialogues and immediate correction.
Within the Problem Based Learning (PBL) environment, students may be encouraged to engage with the learning process and their peers within the group by positive reinforcement from a skilled facilitator to increase positive actions of engagement, contributions and questioning. Negative behaviours e.g. lack of engagement, negative contributions, could be minimized by the facilitator using negative reinforcement.
Within the behaviourist view of learning, the “teacher” is the dominant person in the classroom and takes complete control, evaluation of learning comes from the teacher who decides what is right or wrong. The learner does not have any opportunity for evaluation or reflection within the learning process, they are simply told what is right or wrong. The conceptualization of learning using this approach could be considered “superficial” as the focus is on external changes in behaviour i.e. not interested in the internal processes of learning leading to behaviour change and has no place for the emotions involved the process.

Operant conditioning
Operant conditioning was developed by B.F Skinner in 1937, operant conditioning deals with the modification of “voluntary behaviour” or operant behaviour. Operant behavior operates on the environment and is maintained by its consequences. Reinforcement and punishment, the core tools of operant conditioning, are either positive (delivered following a response), or negative (withdrawn following a response). Skinner created the Skinner Box or operant conditioning chamber to test the effects of operant conditioning principles on rats.

Classical conditioning
Although operant conditioning plays the largest role in discussions of behavioral mechanisms, classical conditioning (or Pavlovian conditioning or respondent conditioning) is also an important behavior-analytic process that need not refer to mental or other internal processes. Pavlov’s experiments with dogs provide the most familiar example of the classical conditioning procedure. In simple conditioning, the dog was presented with a stimulus such as a light or a sound, and then food was placed in the dog’s mouth. After a few repetitions of this sequence, the light or sound by itself caused the dog to salivate.

2. Multiple Intelligence
The theory of multiple intelligences was proposed by Howard Gardner in his 1983 book Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences as a model of intelligence that differentiates intelligence into specific (primarily sensory) “modalities”, rather than seeing it as dominated by a single general ability.
Gardner argues that there is a wide range of cognitive abilities, and that there are only very weak correlations among them. For example, the theory postulates that a child who learns to multiply easily is not necessarily more intelligent than a child who has more difficulty on this task. The child who takes more time to master multiplication may best learn to multiply through a different approach, may excel in a field outside mathematics, or may be looking at and understanding the multiplication process at a fundamentally deeper level. Such a fundamental understanding can result in slowness and can hide a mathematical intelligence potentially higher than that of a child who quickly memorizes the multiplication table despite possessing a less deep understanding of the process of multiplication.
Intelligence tests and psychometrics have generally found high correlations between different aspects of intelligence, rather than the low correlations which Gardner’s theory predicts, supporting the prevailing theory of general intelligence rather than multiple intelligences (MI). The theory has been widely criticized by mainstream psychology for its lack of empirical evidence, and its dependence on subjective judgement. Certain models of alternative education employ the approaches suggested by the theory.

Gardner articulated seven criteria for a behavior to be considered intelligence. These were that the intelligences showed:
1. Potential for brain isolation by brain damage,
2. Place in evolutionary history,
3. Presence of core operations,
4. Susceptibility to encoding (symbolic expression),
5. A distinct developmental progression,
6. The existence of savants, prodigies and other exceptional people,
7. Support from experimental psychology and psychometric findings.
Gardner chose eight abilities that he held to meet these criteria: spatial, linguistic, logical-mathematical, bodily-kinesthetic, musical, interpersonal, intrapersonal, and naturalistic.
Logical-mathematical
This area has to do with logic, abstractions, reasoning and numbers and critical thinking. This also has to do with having the capacity to understand the underlying principles of some kind of causal system. Logical reasoning is closely linked to fluid intelligence and to general intelligence (g factor).
Spatial
This area deals with spatial judgment and the ability to visualize with the mind’s eye. Spatial ability is one of the three factors beneath gin the hierarchical model of intelligence.
Linguistic
People with high verbal-linguistic intelligence display a facility with words and languages. They are typically good at reading, writing, telling stories and memorizing words along with dates. Verbal ability is one of the most g-loaded abilities.[6] This type of intelligence is associated with the Verbal IQ in WAIS-III.

Bodily-kinesthetic
The core elements of the bodily-kinesthetic intelligence are control of one’s bodily motions and the capacity to handle objects skillfully. Gardner elaborates to say that this also includes a sense of timing, a clear sense of the goal of a physical action, along with the ability to train responses.
People who have bodily-kinesthetic intelligence should learn better by involving muscular movement (e.g. getting up and moving around into the learning experience), and be generally good at physical activities such as sports, dance, acting, and making things.
Gardner believes that careers that suit those with this intelligence include: athletes, pilots, dancers, musicians, actors, surgeons,builders, police officers, and soldiers. Although these careers can be duplicated through virtual simulation, they will not produce the actual physical learning that is needed in this intelligence.[7]
Musical
This area has to do with sensitivity to sounds, rhythms, tones, and music. People with a high musical intelligence normally have good pitch and may even have absolute pitch, and are able to sing, play musical instruments, and compose music. Since there is a strong auditory component to this intelligence, those who are strongest in it may learn best via lecture. They will sometimes use songs or rhythms to learn. They have sensitivity to rhythm, pitch, meter, tone, melody or timbre.
Interpersonal
This area has to do with interaction with others. In theory, individuals who have high interpersonal intelligence are characterized by their sensitivity to others’ moods, feelings, temperaments and motivations, and their ability to cooperate in order to work as part of a group. According to Gardner in How Are Kids Smart: Multiple Intelligences in the Classroom, “Inter- and Intra- personal intelligence is often misunderstood with being extroverted or liking other people…” Those with this intelligence communicate effectively and empathize easily with others, and may be either leaders or followers. They typically learn best by working with others and often enjoy discussion and debate.
Gardner believes that careers that suit those with this intelligence include sales, politicians, managers, teachers, counselors and social workers.[9]
Intrapersonal
This area has to do with introspective and self-reflective capacities. This refers to having a deep understanding of the self; what your strengths/ weaknesses are, what makes you unique, being able to predict your own reactions/emotions.

Naturalistic
This area has to do with nurturing and relating information to one’s natural surroundings. Examples include classifying natural forms such as animal and plant species and rocks and mountain types. This ability was clearly of value in our evolutionary past as hunters, gatherers, and farmers; it continues to be central in such roles as botanist or chef.
Existential
Some proponents of multiple intelligence theory proposed spiritual or religious intelligence as a possible additional type. Gardner did not want to commit to a spiritual intelligence, but suggested that an “existential” intelligence may be a useful construct. The hypothesis of an existential intelligence has been further explored by educational researchers.

Create Job Aids / Hand Outs:
Printed copy of abstract of the discussion is provided which shall be incorporated into the manual later. PPT presentation shall be compiled in a CD.

Unit-3 The Constructivists

Time: 20 min
Training Objectives: To give an idea of the different philosophers and thinkers involved in the constructivist learning

Training Material Required: Document on Constructivism

Sequence of Activities:
i) Discussion on the topic using lecture method with Power point presentation
ii) Interaction with participants

Discussion:
Supporters of Constructivism:
 John Dewey (1859–1952)
 Maria Montessori (1870–1952)
 Władysław Strzemiński (1893–1952)
 Lev Vygotsky (1896-1934)
 Jean Piaget (1896-1980)
 George Kelly (1905–1967)
 Heinz von Foerster (1911–2002)
 Herbert A. Simon (1916–2001)
 Ernst von Glasersfeld (1917–2010)
 Paul Watzlawick (1921–2007)
 Edgar Morin (1921-)
 Humberto Maturana (1928-)
 Laszlo Garai (1935-)
 David A. Kolb (1939–)

Create Job Aids / Hand Outs:
Printed copy of abstract of the discussion is provided which shall be incorporated into the manual later. PPT presentation shall be compiled in a CD.

Discussion
Constructivism: Piaget
The four development stages are described in Piaget’s theory as:
1. Sensorimotor stage: from birth to age two. The children experience the world through movement and their five senses. During the sensorimotor stage children are extremely egocentric, meaning they cannot perceive the world from others’ viewpoints.
The sensorimotor stage is divided into six sub stages:
I. Simple reflexes: From birth to one month old. At this time infants use reflexes such as rooting and sucking.
II. First habits and primary circular reactions: From one month to four months old. During this time infants learn to coordinate sensation and two types of schema (habit and circular reactions). A primary circular reaction is when the infant tries to reproduce an event that happened by accident (ex.: sucking thumb).
III. Secondary circular reactions: From four to eight months old. At this time they become aware of things beyond their own body; they are more object-oriented. At this time they might accidentally shake a rattle and continue to do it for sake of satisfaction.
IV. Coordination of secondary circular reactions: From eight months to twelve months old. During this stage they can do things intentionally. They can now combine and recombine schemata and try to reach a goal (ex.: use a stick to reach something). They also understand object permanenceduring this stage. That is, they understand that objects continue to exist even when they can’t see them.
V. Tertiary circular reactions, novelty, and curiosity: From twelve months old to eighteen months old. During this stage infants explore new possibilities of objects; they try different things to get different results.
VI. Internalization of schema: Some followers of Piaget’s studies of infancy, such as Kenneth Kaye[23] argue that his contribution was as an observer of countless phenomena not previously described, but that he didn’t offer explanation of the processes in real time that cause those developments, beyond analogizing them to broad concepts about biological adaptation generally. Kaye’s “apprenticeship theory” of cognitive and social development refuted Piaget’s assumption that mind developed endogenously in infants until the capacity for symbolic reasoning allowed them to learn language.
2. Preoperational stage: from ages two years to seven (magical thinking predominates; motor skills are acquired). Egocentrism begins strongly and then weakens. Children cannot conserve or use logical thinking.
3. Concrete operational stage: from ages seven to eleven (children begin to think logically but are very concrete in their thinking). Children can now conserve and think logically but only with practical aids. They are no longer egocentric.
4. Formal operational stage: from age eleven to sixteen and onwards (development of abstract reasoning). Children develop abstract thought and can easily conserve and think logically in their mind.

Unit-4 Constructivist learning environments

Time: 15 min
Training Objectives: To train the trainees to develop a constructivist learning atmosphere and apply the same to the class room / real life situation.

Training Material Required:
i) A class room with all possible facilities
ii) Documents on constructivism
iii) Computer facility with Internet and LCD projector

Sequence of Activities:
i) Discussion on the topic using lecture method with Power point presentation
ii) Interaction with participants

Discussion:
In constructivist classrooms, unlike the conventional lecturer, the teacher is a facilitator and a guide, who plans, organizes, guides, and provides directions to the learner, who is accountable for his own learning. The teacher supports the learner by means of suggestions that arise out of ordinary activities, by challenges that inspire creativity, and with projects that allow for independent thinking and new ways of learning information. Students work in groups to approach problems and challenges in real world situations, this in turn leads to the creation of practical solutions and a diverse variety of student products.

Traditional Classroom Constructivist Classroom
Curriculum Curriculum is presented part to whole, with emphasis on basic skills.

Strict adherence to fixed curriculum is highly valued. Curriculum is presented whole to part with emphasis on big concepts.

Pursuit of student questions is highly valued.
Curricular Activities Rely heavily on textbooks and workbooks. Rely heavily on primary sources of data and manipulative materials.
How Students are Viewed Students are viewed as blank slates onto which information is etched by the teacher. Students are viewed as thinkers with emerging theories about the world.
Teacher Generally behave in a didactic manner, disseminating information to students.

Teachers seek the correct answer to validate student learning. Teachers generally behave in an interactive manner, mediating the environment for students.

Teachers seek the students’ point of view in order to understand students’ present conceptions for use in subsequent lessons.
Assessment Assessment of student learning is viewed as separate from teaching and occurs almost entirely through testing. Assessment of student learning is interwoven with teaching and occurs through teacher observation of students at work and through student exhibitions and portfolios.
How Students Work Students primarily work alone. Students primarily work in groups.

Create Job Aids / Hand Outs:
Printed copy of abstract of the discussion is provided which shall be incorporated into the manual later. PPT presentation shall be compiled in a CD.

Unit-5 Role of Teacher and Student

Time: 15 min
Training Objectives:
i) Make aware of the change in the attitude of a constructivist teacher from a conventional teacher
ii) To highlight the role played by students in a constructivist class room
Training Material Required:
A constructivist class room

Sequence of Activities:
i) Discussion on the topic using lecture method with Power point presentation
ii) Interaction with participants

Discussion:
The role of the instructor/ teacher
The following represent a summary of some suggested characteristics of a constructivist teacher (Brooks and Brooks, 1993):

1. Become one of many resources that the student may learn from, not the primary source of information.
2. Engage students in experiences that challenge previous conceptions of their existing knowledge.
3. Allow student response to drive lessons and seek elaboration of students’ initial responses. Allow student some thinking time after posing questions.
4. Encourage the spirit of questioning by asking thoughtful, open-ended questions. Encourage encourage thoughtful discussion among students.
5. Use cognitive terminology such as “classify,” “analyze”, and “create” when framing tasks.
6. Encourage and accept student autonomy and initiative. Be willing to let go of classroom control.
7. Use raw data and primary sources, along with manipulative, interactive physical materials.
8. Don’t separate knowing from the process of finding out.
9. Insist on clear expression from students. When students can communicate their understanding, then they have truly learned.

1. The first objective in a constructivist lesson is to engage student interest on a topic that
has a broad concept. This may be accomplished by doing a demonstration, presenting data or showing a short film.
2. Ask open-ended questions that probe the students preconceptions on the topic.
3. Next, present some information or data that does not fit with their existing understanding. Let the students take the bull by the horns.
4. Have students break into small groups to formulate their own hypotheses and experiments that will reconcile their previous understanding with the discrepant information.
5. The role of the teacher during the small group interaction time is to circulate around the classroom to be a resource or to ask probing questions that aid the students in coming to an understanding of the principle being studied.
6. After sufficient time for experimentation, the small groups share their ideas and conclusions with the rest of the class, which will try to come to a consensus about what they learned.

How to start a class room teaching
The Entry Point Framework accommodates individual differences by providing multiple ways to introduce a topic or concept. An engaging point of entry piques the interest of students and invites them into the learning experience to delve more deeply into the subject matter.
The Entry Point Framework offers seven points of entry into a topic:
o Narrative – introducing topic through story-telling
o Numerical – engaging learners through computation
o Logical – deducing cause and effect to learn new concepts
o Existential/Foundational – asking fundamental questions to introduce topic
o Aesthetic – engaging the senses through artwork
o Hands-on – physical manipulation to engage learners in experience
o Interpersonal – cooperative learning to introduce new ideas

The role of the students
Objectives
Students will:
• understand the historical roots of constructivism
• describe constructivist views of learning and review its history
• differentiate and analyze different types of student learning using the constructivist approach.
• apply constructivist methods to content areas.
• evaluate the use of cooperative learning in the classroom.
• explore possibilities regarding the teaching of problem solving and thinking skills
• examine critical thinking skills and their application to the classroom.

Their roles
• independent thinker
• develops questions and identifies issues
• gathers and analyze to create own answers
• becomes problem solver
• reaches beyond factual answers
• connects and summarizes concepts by analyzing, predicting, justifying, and defending ideas
• discusses with the teacher and with other students
• reflects on ideas and either changes or reinforces them
• Shares own ideas and listens to the ideas of others
• tests hypotheses
• engages in experiences that challenge hypotheses and encourage discussion
• involved in real-world situations from which they can generate abstract concepts
• uses raw data and primary sources
• have access to “manipulatives” and interactive materials

Create Job Aids / Hand Outs:
Printed copy of abstract of the discussion is provided which shall be incorporated into the manual later. PPT presentation shall be compiled in a CD.

Unit-6 Constructivism Vs Traditional learning

Time: 15 min
Training Objectives:
i) To draw a demarcation between learning through traditional system and learning through a constructivist approach
Training Material Required:
A document on Constructivism

Sequence of Activities:
i) Discussion on the topic using lecture method with Power point presentation
ii) Interaction with participants

Discussion: The constructivist learning believes on the The 5E model
1. Engage – to generate interest
2. Explore – to inquire and experience
3. Explain – to make connections
4. Elaborate – to practice and apply new contexts
5. Evaluate – to assess understanding

The Traditional Learning The constructivist Learning
• Learning begins with parts of the whole–Emphasizes basic skills
• The student is strictly adhered to fixed curriculum
• The student uses Textbooks and workbooks
• Instructor gives/students receive

• Instructor assumes directive, authoritative role
• Assessment via testing / correct answers

• Knowledge is inert
• Students work individually to learn
• Begin with the whole – expanding to parts

• Pursuit of student questions / interests
• Primary Sources / manipulative materials
• Learning is interaction – building on what students already know
• Instructor interacts / negotiates with students
• Assessment via student works, observations, points of view, tests. Process is as important as product
• Knowledge is dynamic / change with experiences
• Students work in groups to learn on their own

Create Job Aids / Hand Outs:
Printed copy of abstract of the discussion is provided which shall be incorporated into the manual later. PPT presentation shall be compiled in a CD.

Unit-7 Why to accept Constructivism?

Time: 15 min
Training Objectives:
i) Motivate the trainees on the positive aspect of Constructivist approach in learning
ii) To realise and develop the capacity in the trainees to compare different theories of learning and accept the one applicable in today’s learning environment.
Training Material Required:
Draft on Constructivism

Sequence of Activities:
i) Discussion on the topic using lecture method.
ii) Interaction with participants and collect feedback from them on what they have conceived at the end of this discussion. Compile them.

Discussion:
The positive aspects of constructivism as discussed in the previous discussions

Create Job Aids / Hand Outs:
Printed copy of abstract of the discussion after compiling the feedback is provided which shall be incorporated into the manual later.

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KENDRIYA VIDYALAYA SANGATHAN

MODULE PREPARATION

THE ART OF QUESTIONING

ZIET, BHUBANESWAR

Director: Ms.USHA A IYER

KENDRIYA VIDYALAYA SANGATHAN
ZIET,BHUBANESWAR
“The ART OF QUESTIONING”
(PREPARATION OF MODULE)
TITLE:“THE ART OF QUESTIONING “
AIM: To equip the teachers with” THE ART OF QUESTIONING “
INTRODUCTION:.
“ Most of our students do not score well on tests that measure their ability to recognize assumptions, evaluate arguments, and draw inferences. Fortunately, current research affirms that the direct teaching of thinking skills CAN produce better, more creative thinkers, if they are taught HOW to do so through the art of effective questioning.”
The primary goal of using teacher-initiated questions is to help students discover and use the art of questioning as a basic strategy for independent learning tool. It is in this context this session is introduced.
.TRAINING STRATEGIES:
1. Whole class
2. Small groups
3. Individual
TRAINING SETTINGS: Hall for seating 40-45 teachers and working
Learning outcome
The participants should have the knowledge and ability to utilize questioning to support effective training.

Suggested methods of instruction
• Lecture/discussion
• Discussion
• Handouts
Aids
• Handouts
Power point presentations
1.The value of questioning
Time: 30 mts
TRAINING OBJECTIVES:
At the end of this unit the teacher will be able to know:
 The value of questioning
 How effective the questions are in transferring the information

TRAINING SETTINGS:
 Hall for seating 40-45 teachers with chairs and tables

IMPORTANCE OF QUESTIONING
To be effective, trainers must be skilled questioners. Carefully devised questions, skillfully asked, are the basis of the lecture/discussion method of training, and questions should also feature prominently in other methods of training. Few people question well, and to do so requires careful preparation and practice.
• Questioning is one of the essential skills for any good trainer.
• Unless you question properly you cannot hope to know how much of your message is getting across.

Sequence of Activities
 A ppt presentation will be shown on the value of questions.
 Administering a test on the analysis of 20 questions

2. Effective questioning
TIME: 30 mts
TRAINING OBJECTIVES:
At the end of this unit the teacher will be able to know:
 How effective the questions are in improving the thoughts
 How effective the questions are in understanding the problems and finding the solutions
 How effective the questions are in finding the ability to listen to the answer and suspend judgment
 How effective the questions are in understanding the nature of person in doing the work.

TRAINING STRATEGIES:
1. Whole class
2. Small groups
3. Individual
TRAINING SETTINGS:
Hall for seating 40-45 teachers with chairs and tables.
Activities to be conducted inorder to make the teachers get question competent

Activity 1: Interviews: The teachers are made to write down the questions they‘d like to ask their partner. They ask each other questions about their partner to find out information. Start with whole group interview and then have the participants ‘interview’ in pairs.
Activity 2: What did you say:
In 3 s, one student reads out a sentence, leaving out a word. The other students ask the follow-up question.

Example: A) I went to)* &)**___*(this weekend.
B) Excuse me but, where did he go this weekend?
C) He went to Chilika Lake this weekend.

Activity 3:

Photo and word prompts?

In 3s, the participants are shown photos. They make a question each about the photo. The Question making scheme, The Who/What/Where game can be played.

4. Self-Portrait.
Have your students draw themselves. After they have done this, collect the papers and hang them up for the whole class to see. Now have students try to guess who the artists was for each picture.
5. Letter Writing.
At the beginning of the year, write a short letter about yourself as the teacher. Tell the students where you live, what your hobbies are, and if you have any children, pets, etc. Hand out your letter to each student in your class and ask them to write you back with similar information about themselves.
6. The Mingle Game.
Give each student an index card. Have them write a question that they would like to ask the other students in the class. Examples might include, “What is your favorite song?” or “What is your favorite sport?” Next, have the students get up and walk around the room. When you say, “stop,” students have to stand beside the person closest to them and ask the question that is on their own card. Both students have to answer the questions. Now have them mingle again and meet a new person.
7. The “What Am I?” Game.
Have the students get into a circle. Give each student a post-it note. Have each person write a noun on the post-it note. Then stick the post-it on the forehead of the person standing to right of them with the noun showing. Now have student take a turn to ask the group a “yes/no” question that will help them guess the noun on their forehead. If they do not guess correctly, the person on their right gets to ask a question. Keep going until all of the noun have been guessed, or your time limit has expired.
8. These are a few of my favorite things.
Pass around a sheet of paper and some pens. Ask the students to write their name and their favorite TV shows (you can come up with your own topic for favorite things). Collect the papers and pens. Begin reading the answers, but have the class guess who wrote the response.
9. Birthday Lineup.
Call out any month of the year and have all students born in that month come up to the front of the room. It is up to the students to decide who stands first, second, etc., so they are standing from the first day of the month to the last day of the month. Now call out another month (don’t call the months in order), and have those students try to position themselves correctly by day and by where they should stand as an entire month. This is a great way to get kids working together and knowing each other. Once all of the kids have lined up, test them to see if they are correct.
10. Icebreaker Pictionary.
Have the students draw pictures about what they like to do, what their favorite foods are, and what is their favorite subject in school. Have each student come up and show their pictures to the class. See if the students can guess what each student drew that tells a little bit about themselves. For instance, if a student draws a yellow M, can anyone guess that she likes McDonalds?
11. Show and Tell.
Don’t forget about this old time favorite part of class. Instruct students to bring in something that they cherish, or just want to share with the class. Give each student a turn to come up and tell about the item that they brought in. This way the class will get to know each other and something that makes each student happy.
12. The Snowball Activity.
Have students write three things about themselves on a piece of paper. Then have them crumble up the paper to resemble a snowball. Let the students have a snowball fight for about one minute. Now everyone grabs one of the snowballs and has to try and find the person who wrote on it. Once they find their partner, they have to bring that person up in front of the class and explain what they learned about their new friend with the three facts written on the piece of paper.
13. The Observation Game.
Line up the students in two lines facing each other. If there is an odd number of students, you can play the game, too. Give students 30 seconds to look each other over really good, paying attention to all details about their partner. The students in one line now turn facing the other way while the other line of students changes something about themselves. For example, a girl might take off a hair bow, or a boy might un-tuck his shirt. When the kids in the first line turn back around, they have to guess what their partner changed. Now switch and let the first line make the change and the second line guess the difference.
14.Llistening–The 5 Ws!

Play any short clip or news report. Even a short story. Ask the students to list
the “ reporters” 5ws on a piece of paper.

Who _______________________________

What________________________________

Where_______________________________

Why________________________________

15. 20 questions /what is it ?!

SEQUENCE OF ACTIVITIES
 A ppt will be shown on the effective questioning
 Make the teachers to list out the thinking process that each question intends to
 Make the teachers into 7 heterogeneous groups based on experience.
 Each group will prepare atleast two activities for improving the question competency.
These will be compiled into a manual

CREATE JOB AIDS/HANDOUTS:

Manual consisting of various activities to be performed to develop question competency.

3.Types of questions

TIME: 20 mts
TRAINING OBJECTIVES:

 At the end of this unit the teacher will be
Knowing the different types of questions.

Condition:
The teacher will bring the problems that they face in the class
Standard:

1. The teacher will be teaching classes from I To XII or at least one of these classes.
2. The teacher will be able to identify the different types questions
3. The teacher understands how the types of questions are helpful in improving the performance of the child

TRAINING MATERIALS REQUIRED

NCERT TEXT BOOK. Of the class for which they are teaching

SEQUENCE OF ACTIVITIES

1. By Discussion identify the different types of questions.
2. Ppt1 showing the types of questions based on Bloom’s Tax anomy
3. Ppt2 showing the types of questions that are generally used in a class room situation
4. Make the teachers into 7 heterogeneous groups based on experience.
5. Each group will prepare 10 questions on each type

This will be made into a manual

4.Purpose of questioning

TIME: 5 mts
TRAINING OBJECTIVES:

 At the end of this unit the teacher will

Know the purpose of questioning.

Condition:
The teacher will bring the problems that they face in the class
Standard:
1. The teacher will be teaching classes from I to XII or at least one of these classes.
2. The teacher will be able to identify the purpose of questioning

TRAINING MATERIALS REQUIRED

NCERT TEXT BOOK. Of the class for which they are teaching

SEQUENCE OF ACTIVITIES

1.By Discussion identify the purpose of questioning.
2 The various purpose of questioning can be identified by a test

.

5 .Listening skills as part of effective questioning

TIME: 15mts
TRAINING OBJECTIVES:

 At the end of this unit the teacher will

understand how listening becomes a part of learning.

Condition:
The teacher will bring the problems that they face in the class
Standard:

1. The teacher will be teaching classes from I To XII or at least one of these classes.
2. The teacher will be able to identify the purposes of effective listening
3. The teacher understands how effective listening helps in framing effective questioning

TRAINING MATERIALS REQUIRED

NCERT TEXT BOOK. Of the class for which they are teaching

SEQUENCE OF ACTIVITIES

1. By Discussion identify the purposes of listening.
2. Make the teachers into 7 heterogeneous groups based on experience.
3. Each group will present a small story along with a questionnaire to be answered thereby finding how listening affects the questioning
4. The points to be kept in mind while listening can be obtained on discussing with the participants.

CREATE JOB AIDS/HANDOUTS:

1. A hand out consisting of the table showing the Bloom’s Taxonomy

6. How to ask questions

TIME: 10mts
TRAINING OBJECTIVES:

 At the end of this unit the teacher will

understand how to ask questions.

Condition:
The teacher will bring the problems that they face in the class
Standard:

1. The teacher will be teaching classes from I To XII or at least one of these classes.
2. The teacher will be able to ask questions

TRAINING MATERIALS REQUIRED

NCERT TEXT BOOK. Of the class for which they are teaching

SEQUENCE OF ACTIVITIES

1. By Discussion identify the different ways of asking questions.
2. A simple test will be conducted .By analysing the answers to the questions the approach to the way of asking questions can be drawn.
3. The above points will be listed out.

7. Preparation of questions

TIME: 5mts
TRAINING OBJECTIVES:

 At the end of this unit the teacher will be able to prepare the questions as per the need and strength of the child.

Condition:

The teacher will bring the problems that they face in the class
Standard:
The teacher
1. Will be teaching classes from I To XII or at least one of these classes.
2. will be able to prepare questions

TRAINING MATERIALS REQUIRED

NCERT TEXT BOOK. Of the class for which they are teaching

SEQUENCE OF ACTIVITIES

1.A PPT will be shown on what are the points to be considered while preparing the questions.

Do’s and Don’ts of questioning
Time duration: 5 mts
SEQUENCE OF ACTIVITIES

1.A PPT will be shown on what are the points to be considered while preparing the questions.